The Permit indicates the kind of waste and how you plan to dispose of it.
For oil wells, the options are:
There are NO EXCEPTIONS. Anything else is illegal dumping. EPA and DEEP have inspectors throughout the state to monitor and enforce this. Violators are subject to criminal prosecution.
In Connecticut, recycling waste requires an additional permit and a "Beneficial Use Determination" (BUD) from the Connecticut DEEP.
Getting a BUD is difficult and expensive and requires disclosure of all contents of the waste and then is only allowed if "the commissioner finds that such solid waste can be reused without harming or presenting a threat of harm to public health, safety or the environment."
Ohio DEP, Pennsylvania DEP as well as the SRBC and DRBC REQUIRE disclosure of all chemicals used in oil and gas production in the region. "Proprietary" chemicals must be disclosed and are then given code numbers.
Separately, CT requires WEEKLY complete chemical analysis and reporting of the composition of any shale oil and gas wastewater as part of any permit to treat such wastes within the state.
The EPA excludes some wastes from automatic labeling as "Hazardous." This exclusion applies to SOME of the waste streams from many industries, including:
BUT, excluded waste must still follow the permit process described above. And even waste which is not automatically classified as hazardous must still be tested for hazardous levels of toxins, and then treated at specialized facilities if toxins are found.
Any waste producer that misidentifies waste or disposes of waste improperly is subject to criminal prosecution.
EPA says: "For example, oil and gas exploration and production wastes are subject to regulation under the Clean Air Act (CAA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA)."
The Connecticut DEEP regulates and monitors Connecticut soil and water.
Before any waste from drilling in NY or PA can leave those states, it must pass EPA, SRBC, DRBC, NY and PA DEP regulations and licensing and certification requirements. Then it would still have to meet CT requirements.